1 cy October with 7 outer juvenile GC retained. Many 1cy include only 2-3 inner GC in the post-juvenile moult, and the contrast is therefore often found in the inner part of the arm (sometimes scapulars need to be lifted). Birds with extensive moult (all GC) still show contrast to juvenile pc. Birds with no moulted GC show contrast to moulted post-juvenile MC. [CS00224]