After completion of post-juvenile moult, readily sexed based on the colouration of throat, forehead and breast. Svensson (1992) gives some guidance on how to separate the (very) exceptional females that may approach a male-like pattern. Two odd females are shown below.
Male, 1cy, September. Young males are somewhat variable, and the black chin/throat and white forehead are largely concealed by pale buffish tips. Separating the feathers will reveal the basal feather colour, and by spring the buff tips have worn off. [CV06315]
Male, 2cy+, September. The tips to the black face/chin/throat feathers are white, finer and more sparse than in young birds. Hence, the black face is better developed, esp. around the lores. [CP47885]
Male, 2cy, April. By spring, the buff feather tips have worn away, revealing the underlying black and white facial patterns of the males. [CV02482]
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