Seldom offers any problem – basic rule is that adults are readily sexed, while young birds can not be sexed. However a few birds are more problematic. Always age the bird first.
2cy: The great majority can not be sexed, but a portion of young males (in our sample c. 11 % [40 out of all 373 2cy birds]) show a slight red-orange tinge on the chin, throat or upper chest.
3cy+: Easily sexed as male shows a cold grey head and a bright red-orange chin and throat, while females are pale buff or off-white on chin and throat. Very exceptionally, females are said to show some orange-red on chin (see Svensson ), but should reasonably still be reckognized as females on the lack of cold grey areas in e.g. sides of neck, throat and breast.