Phoenicurus ochruros - spring

Black Redstart


Autumn criterias are still applicable, though 2cy are more affected to wear during the winter than adult. Moult contrasts present in the wing of 2cy, generally among inner GC and sometimes TT. Adult birds show a uniform plumage without moult contrasts.


  • Worn juvenile outer GC with paler brown centra and more buffish edges contrast to less worn post-juvenile inner GC showing darker and colder grey centra (often with paler cold grey edges). The post-juvenile moult often include only 2-3 inner GC, and the contrast is therefore often found in the inner part of the arm (sometimes scapulars need to be lifted). Note that the post-juvenile moult i very varialbe, and the range of included GC is 0 to 10. With 0 GC included, the GC contrasts to the post-juvenile MC, and with 10 GC moulted (which is rather rarely seen) a contrast is seen to the still juvenile PC.
  • 0-3 TT (most commonly 0) is included in the post-juvenile moult, and then contrasts to more worn and pale brownish juvenile ones.
  • On average more worn, narrower and slightly more pointed RR than ad (although variation and replaced feathers may cause confusion).
  • Juvenile PC are generally less dense, more brownish worn and slightly narrower than in adult.
  • The tips of the juvenile PP are generally more worn.
  • Uniform wing lacking any moult contrast.
  • Whole wing and tail in better condition with denser feathers with better gloss.
  • Tips of RR generally blunter and broader.

2cy March. The two innermost GC are moulted and contrast to the 8 outer juvenile GC. [CT49181]

2cy April. An extensively moulted bird with no juvenile GC retained. Moult contrast is therefore seen between the post-juvenile GC and the still juvenile worn PC. [CS01268]

3cy+ female April. Uniform wing with no contrasts. GC and PC still in relatively good condition. [CN90228]

3cy+ male March. Easily aged on cold dark greyish uniform wing (incl. PC) with pale grey edges to wing-c. [CS00645]

2cy March. Juvenile PC are generally less dense, more brownish worn and slightly narrower than in adult. [CT49335]

2cy May showing some variation in colour, shape and wear to the PC. [CP45262]

3cy+ female April. PC are generally in better condition, being more more dense, slightly broader and and often more greyish in colour. [CN90228]

3cy+ male April. Broad, sooty dark PC with pale grey edges. [CS00644]

2cy April. All three TT are unmoulted juvenile, showing a pale brownish ground colour and typical wear. Note the contrast to the inner post-juvenile GC. Juvenile TT can not be used for sexing (se Sexing-chapter). [CP42921]

2cy May. The longest T is moulted post-juvenile (note the contrast to the juvenile shorter two TT and the juvenile SS, being darker brownish-grey and of better quality with fresher edges. Most young birds do not include TT in the post-juvenile moult, but renewal of singel (or all) TT are not rare (and birds with more extensive post-juvenile moult may even include single SS). Additionally, birds with post-juvenile TT can often also be sexed (se Sexing-chapter). [CP45262]

3cy+ female April. Uniformly post-breeding TT (as well as SS and GC). [CN90228]

3cy+ male April. Uniformly post-breeding TT (as well as SS and GC). [CS00644]

2cy April. Tips of RR on average more narrow and pointed. Wear will increase the juvenile impression with time. [CN90251]

2cy April showing some variation in shape, wear and pattern. [CS01359]

3cy+ April. Tips of RR on average more broad and blunt (and in better condition). [CN92856]

3cy+ April showing some variation. [CS00644]

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