Fringilla coelebs - spring



Autumn criterias are still applicable, though 2cy are more affected to wear during the winter than adult. Moult contrast present in the wing of 1cy, generally among outer GC, or between GC and PC. A few birds also show contrasts in TT or RR. Adult birds show a uniform plumage.

  • Often show moult contrast in outer GC: Fresh post-juvenile inner GC are darker greyish black and usually show a wide yellowish-white tip in contrast to the slightly more worn, greyish, juvenile outer GC with narrow white tips. Others have included all GC in the moult, and the contrast is then found towards the still juvenile PC.
  • Juvenile PC are generally slightly more narrow, more worn in tips and edges and less brightly coloured in the green/grey edge of outer vane (though males often show all black PC). A slight variation occur, and some individuals may be a bit more difficult to assess than other.
  • Juvenile RR are somewhat variable, but generally slightly more narrow and pointed in the tips and show a juvenile quality to the feather. A few individuals have moulted single or some RR and then exhibit moult contrast among RR. 
  • Most individuals show uniformly juvenile TT, but a few may include one to all feathers. Post-juvenile TT are fresh and show a more contrasting pattern with a blackish centre and deeper rusty or buff edge (similar to the post-juvenile inner GC), contrasting well to unmoulted TT and inner SS.
  • Uniform plumage lacking any moult contrast (though rare occasions of retained/forgotten feathers are known).
  • Whole wing and tail (esp. PC, PP and RR) in better condition with broader and denser feathers, more blackish in colour and with better gloss (esp. in males).
  • Tips of RR generally more blunt and broader.

2cy March (male). Outermost GC1 retained juvenile, contrasting to post-juvenile GC2-10. The juvenile GC are worn and slightly paler grey with narrow white tips while the inner post-juvenile ones are darker greyish black, showing a wide yellowish-white tip. [1ES24481]

2cy March (male), showing retained juvenile GC1-3 in contrast to post-juvenile inner GC4-10. [1ET29397]

2cy April (female), showing retained juvenile GC1. Female GC are generally paler grey than males. [1ET29435]

2cy April (female), showing retained juvenile GC1-4 in contrast to post-juvenile inner GC5-10. [1ET29430]

3cy+ March (male). Uniform post-breeding wing, lacking any moult contrast. The dark portions of the feathers are darker blackish with better gloss. [1ES23415]

3cy+ April (female), showing the female version of an adult wing. [1ES24503]

2cy March (male). Juvenile PC are generally less dense, slightly paler (brownish-) grey with variably worn/freyed tips and edges. Note that this bird shows juvenile GC1, which together with the PC contrasts to the moulted post-juvenile inner GC2-10. [1ES24481]

2cy April (male), showing variation in colour, shape and wear to the juvenile PC. GC1-2 are juvenile in contrast to post-juvenile inner GC3-10. [1ES24485]

2cy April (female). Juvenile female PC are generally slightly paler greyish-brown than in males. This bird show a retained juvenile GC1, which together with the juvenile PC contrasts to post-juvenile GC2-10. [1ET29437]

2cy April (female). Like the former bird, this one shows a juvenile GC1 which, togethers with juvnile PC, contrasts to post-juvenile GC2-10. [1ET29435]

3cy+ April (male). Post-breeding PC are generally in better condition, slightly broader and darker blackish. No contrast is seen to the similarly post-breeding GC. [12211476]

3cy+ March (female), showing the female version of adult PC. Note the fresh greenish edges to the outer vane. [1ET29404]

2cy March (male). A uniform set of juvenile RR - rather narrow and slightly pointed and worn tips. [1ES24481]

2cy April (male) showing variation of uniform juvenile RR. [1ES24485]

2cy April (female). Uniformly juvenile RR, typically rather narrow and with worn, pointed, tips. Note that all birds are not as straight forward as this one, and some show sightly more adult-like RR than this. [1ET29430]

2cy April (female), showing a moult contrast in tail, where left R6 is post-juvenile while rest of RR are juvenile (but in this individual a bit broader/blunter than in the bird shown to the left). [1ET29437]

3cy+ April (male). A uniform post-breeding tail. RR broad, blunt tipped and in good condition (glossy blackish). [12211476]

3cy+ April (female), showing variation of the post-breeding RR. [1ES24503]

2cy May (male). One of rather few individuals showing a moult contrast in the TT. Note the two inner worn juvenile TT, contrasting to post-juvenile longest T and GC, but same generation as inner SS. [1ES24717]

2cy April (male), showing uniformly juvenile TT. [1ES24485]

2cy April (female). Another one showing moult contrast with inner two TT moulted post-juvenile (like the GC) in contrast to the juvenile longest T and adjecent SS. [1ET29453]

2cy April (female) showing uniformly juvenile TT. [1ET29437]

3cy+ April (male). Uniformly post-breeding TT, GC and SS. [12211476]

3cy+ April (female), showing uniformly pre-breeding TT, GC and SS. [1ET29438]

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