Abbreviations & references


AL: Alula feather(s)

CC: Carpal covert
GC: Greater covert(s)
LC: Lesser covert(s)
MC: Median covert(s)
P / PP: Primary / Primaries
PC: Primary covert(s)
R / RR: Rectrix / Rectrices
S / SS: Secondary / Secondaries
SC: Complete summer moult

sp: Partial summer moult
T / TT: Tertial(s)
WC: Complete winter moult
wp: Partial winter moult
*: The symbol * is used in the moult key to mark that deviations from the normal moult patterns are regularly seen (such deviations are always discussed in the text below the moult key).
+: The symbol + is used in the moult charts for birds showing irregular moult sequence.


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