Ficedula hypoleuca - autumn

Pied Flycatcher


In 1cy, moult contrast is present in GC, most often in the inner part of the arm. Adult birds show a uniform and freshly moulted plumage (often with exception for unmoulted worn S6). 

  • Moulted GC (often the 1-3 innermost) are slightly more dense, show slightly darker (glossy) centre and neater olive fringes than the unmoulted juvenile ones. The latter ones are less dense, slightly more worn, a trifle paler and usually show a rather characteristic pattern with wide wedge shaped pale tip (less obvious in the outer GC). In birds where no GC was moulted, the juvenile GC contrast to any moulted post-juvenile MC.
  • The juvenile TT (most easily assessed in the central feather) shows whitish tips that are wider on the outer vane, creating a ’step’ to the more narrow white on the inner vane.
  • Juvenile RR are generally slightly more narrow, more pointed and less dense than adult ones, but differences in shape are not always obvious. Note that difference in the dark ground colour of the RR is partly explained by sex.
  • The juvenile PC usually shows slightly looser texture and are often paler brownish grey, but differences are not always obvious.
  • Whole plumage fresh, lacking moult contrasts. Note, however that quite many birds have suspended their complete moult and may show unmoulted worn S6 (more rarely also S5 and S4).
  • Adult post-breeding GC and TT have a slightly darker centre and more narrow pale tips that rounds the feather without widening to a ’step’ or to a triangular shape.
  • Adult RR are generally more dense, slightly wider and more blunt tipped. Note that difference in colour of the RR is partly explained by sex.
  • Adult PC are generally more fresh, denser and often darker grey.

1cy September (male). A typical young bird showing moulted post-juvenile innermost GC10 that is fresh, dense and show more olive edge and tip. Adjacent GC show less dense structure and a typical juvenile wedge-shaped pattern in their white tips. [CV06277]

1cy September (female), showing variation with moulted post-juvenile GC9-10 contrasting to juvenile remaining GC. Note typical juvenile pattern in the white tip of the juvenile GC and, further, the more dense structure in GC9 compared to GC8. [CV06310]

2cy+ August (male). Whole wing is fresh and uniformly post-breeding. Note the dense, broad and dark GC with fine pale tips that rounds the feathers without creating a 'step' or a wedge along the shaft. [CV06030]

2cy+ August (female), showing the female version of the adult wing. [CV05887]

1cy August. Rather typical juvenile TT, showing contrast to innermost post-juvenile GC9-10. On the central T, note the juvenile pattern with broad white tip on the outer vane and narrow white on the inner vane, creating a white 'step'. [CS03571]

1cy July, showing variation of the juvenile TT. This less typical bird shows very broad white on the outer vanes. Others may have less white than average and, hence, approach the adult pattern shown below. [CP46332]

2cy+ September (female). Adult post-breeding TT are denser and generally shows a narrower white tip, lacking the juvenile 'step'. [CV06124]

2cy+ August (male), showing a central T with a white tip that tend to (somewhat) approach the juvenile pattern. Note also the still growing innermost SS (last stage of the complete post-breeding moult). [CP39478]

1cy August (male). Typical juvenile RR are slightly narrower and shows more pointed tips than adult feathers. However, there is some variation and juvenile RR with a shape that is less easy tell from adult (like the one shown here) are not uncommon. The less dense structure is often helpful in such individuals. [CP46459]

1cy September (female), showing typical narrow and pointed RR. Note that females in general show a paler brown colour to the RR than males. [CV06310]

2cy+ August (male). Adult RR are generally broader, more blunt tipped and shows a darker ground colour. [CP39478]

2cy+ August (female), showing variation in the RR. [CV05887]

1cy August (male). Juvenile PC usually shows slightly looser texture and are often somewhat more brownish than adult. [CS29786]

1cy August (female), showing variation. [CV05851]

2cy+ August (male). Rather typical adult PC, with dense structure and rather broad feathers. [CP46966]

2cy+ August, showing variation. [CP39745]

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